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   Avian Mycoplasmosis
  The improvment of mycoplasmosis control using the avian mycoplasma PCR technology
 
  Avian mycoplasmosis : limits of the current diagnosis methods  
  Mycoplasmosis (caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), M. synoviae (MS), M. meleagridis (MM) and M. iowae (MI)) is a wide spread disease affecting poultry production all over the world. International poultry breeding companies are making a great effort to eradicate mycoplasma from their primary breeding stocks. Nevertheless, the control of mycoplasmosis in parent breeders and poultry production flocks still remains a problem in some countries.

The diagnosis of avian mycoplasma is mainly based on culture and serology. But, culture is long and tedious and mycoplasma isolation can suffer from contamination by fast growing micro-organisms. The most used serological test, the Rapid Slide Agglutination (RSA) often lacks of specificity, especially at the time of vaccination with inactivated vaccines. For all of these reasons, Labofarm has developed molecular methods for avian mycoplasma detection and characterization.
 
     
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   Infectious Bronchitis
  IBV Qx serotypes
 
  Distribution  
  Infectious bronchitis coronaviruses are known to be the most frequent contaminant in poultry industry.  
     
  Clinical signs  
  It has been shown, since 1950, that despite their respiratory system affinity, these viruses are able to infect genital tract, causing eggs production drop or eggs abnormalities. Recently, kidney or intestine cells affinity has also be put in evidence. The genetic diversity of avian respiratory coronaviruses is linked to their high mutation frequency. In this article, we will focus on the Qx variant strain of IBV, the aetiological agent of “false layers”.

(Following Dr Brice ROBINEAU communication at French Veterinary Medicine Academy)
 
     
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   Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale
 
 
  Global distribution  
  Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) has been identified worldwide and is known to cause severe respiratory and articular (turkeys) clinical signs. Infection is characterized by pneumonia and airsacculitis and can lead to considerable economic losses in poultry and turkey production.  
     
  Agent  
  ORT is a pleomorphic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that was first characterized in South Africa. This bacterium needs specific growth conditions and culture might easily be contaminated by other bacteria.
18 serotypes have been described (A to R) : the most frequently found in broilers is serotype A (95%); serotypes A, B, D, F and E are more common in turkeys.
ORT has also been isolated from a wide variety of wild birds.
 
     
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